Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, which often prevails throughout an individual’s life. ADHD has various comorbidities, one of them being Substance Abuse (SA). SA is not a disorder but can lead to one – Substance Use Disorder (SUD), in the case of long-term drug consumption leading to dependency, both psychological and physical. Learning about this comorbidity is important, since ADHD is relatively prevalent, as are deaths from substance use and overdose.
Sleep deprivation is a common phenomenon, around 35% of Americans suffer from sleep deprivation according to statistical analysis1. This phenomenon is the cause of not having enough or good quality sleep. It can be a short-term phenomenon and depending on the age the person might need more or fewer hours of sleep. For example, toddlers require up to 14 hours of sleep, while children normally require up to 10 hours of sleep, and adults around 8 hours of sleep.
Depression is a common affective disorder, and its prevalence is rising in tandem with the worldwide mental health crisis. However, depending on cultural norms and beliefs, its causes may be understood differently. Eastern and Western civilizations are frequently seen as parallel. Western culture is more individualistic, and connected with industrialized countries and technology, whereas Eastern culture is associated with traditionalism and collectivism.
Chronic trauma results from incidents that have been repetitive such as child abuse, domestic violence, or long-term sexual abuse. Chronic trauma is said to last longer than acute trauma and it can lead to the development of post-traumatic stress disorder. Common symptoms of this kind of trauma include impaired memory, rage, confusion, fatigue, misperception of one’s environment, sexual avoidance, substance abuse, or violence.